[Updated 22nd January 2017, corrected mistakes for getting the fixed effect estimates of factor variables that need to be averaged out]

[Updated 14th July 2017, the function is now on github: https://github.com/Lionel68/Blog/tree/master/PlotFit any modifications to it will be posted there before updating the post. The function has 2 new functionalities: (i) taking into account offset variables that can be declared in the offset argument, (ii) allowing the user to choose between approximate (the default) and bootstrapped confidence intervals in mixed effect models, this can be controlled with boot_mer arguments.]

Once models have been fitted and checked and re-checked comes the time to interpret them. The easiest way to do so is to plot the response variable versus the explanatory variables (I call them predictors) adding to this plot the fitted regression curve together (if you are feeling fancy) with a confidence interval around it. Now this approach is preferred over the partial residual one because it allows the averaging out of any other potentially confounding predictors and so focus only on the effect of one focal predictor on the response. In my work I have been doing this hundreds of time and finally decided to put all this into a function to clean up my code a little bit. As always a cleaner version of this post is available here.

Let’s dive into some code (the function is at the end of the post just copy/paste into your R environment):

#####LM example###### #we measured plant biomass for 120 pots under 3 nutrient treatments and across a gradient of CO2 #due to limited place in our greenhouse chambers we had to use 4 of them, so we established a blocking design data<-data.frame(C=runif(120,-2,2),N=gl(n = 3,k = 40,labels = c("Few","Medium","A_lot")),Block=rep(rep(paste0("B",1:4),each=10),times=3)) xtabs(~N+Block,data) ## Block ## N B1 B2 B3 B4 ## Few 10 10 10 10 ## Medium 10 10 10 10 ## A_lot 10 10 10 10 modmat<-model.matrix(~Block+C*N,data) #the paramters of the models params<-c(10,-0.4,2.3,-1.5,1,0.5,2.3,0.6,2.7) #simulate a response vector data$Biom<-rnorm(120,modmat%*%params,1) #fit the model m<-lm(Biom~Block+C*N,data) summary(m) ## ## Call: ## lm(formula = Biom ~ Block + C * N, data = data) ## ## Residuals: ## Min 1Q Median 3Q Max ## -2.11758 -0.68801 -0.01582 0.75057 2.55953 ## ## Coefficients: ## Estimate Std. Error t value Pr(>|t|) ## (Intercept) 10.0768 0.2370 42.521 < 2e-16 *** ## BlockB2 -0.3011 0.2690 -1.119 0.265364 ## BlockB3 2.3322 0.2682 8.695 3.54e-14 *** ## BlockB4 -1.4505 0.2688 -5.396 3.91e-07 *** ## C 0.7585 0.1637 4.633 9.89e-06 *** ## NMedium 0.4842 0.2371 2.042 0.043489 * ## NA_lot 2.4011 0.2335 10.285 < 2e-16 *** ## C:NMedium 0.7287 0.2123 3.432 0.000844 *** ## C:NA_lot 3.2536 0.2246 14.489 < 2e-16 *** ## --- ## Signif. codes: 0 '***' 0.001 '**' 0.01 '*' 0.05 '.' 0.1 ' ' 1 ## ## Residual standard error: 1.028 on 111 degrees of freedom ## Multiple R-squared: 0.9201, Adjusted R-squared: 0.9144 ## F-statistic: 159.8 on 8 and 111 DF, p-value: < 2.2e-16

Here we would normally continue and make some model checks. As output from the model we would like to plot the effect of CO2 on plant biomass for each level of N addition. Of course we want to average out the Block effect (otherwise we would have to plot one separate line for each Block). This is how it works:

pred<-plot_fit(m,focal_var = "C",inter_var = "N") head(pred) ## C N LC Pred UC ## 1 -1.9984087 Few 8.004927 8.706142 9.407358 ## 2 -1.7895749 Few 8.213104 8.864545 9.515986 ## 3 -1.5807411 Few 8.417943 9.022948 9.627952 ## 4 -1.3719073 Few 8.618617 9.181350 9.744084 ## 5 -1.1630735 Few 8.814119 9.339753 9.865387 ## 6 -0.9542397 Few 9.003286 9.498156 9.993026 #the function output a data frame with columns for the varying predictors #a column for the predicted values (Pred), one lower bound (LC) and an upper one (UC) #let's plot this plot(Biom~C,data,col=c("red","green","blue")[data$N],pch=16,xlab="CO2 concentration",ylab="Plant biomass") lines(Pred~C,pred[1:20,],col="red",lwd=3) lines(LC~C,pred[1:20,],col="red",lwd=2,lty=2) lines(UC~C,pred[1:20,],col="red",lwd=2,lty=2) lines(Pred~C,pred[21:40,],col="green",lwd=3) lines(LC~C,pred[21:40,],col="green",lwd=2,lty=2) lines(UC~C,pred[21:40,],col="green",lwd=2,lty=2) lines(Pred~C,pred[41:60,],col="blue",lwd=3) lines(LC~C,pred[41:60,],col="blue",lwd=2,lty=2) lines(UC~C,pred[41:60,],col="blue",lwd=2,lty=2) legend("topleft",legend = c("Few","Medium","A lot"),col=c("red","green","blue"),pch=16,lwd=3,title = "N addition",bty="n")

The cool thing is that the function will also work for GLM, LMM and GLMM. For mixed effect models the confidence interval is computed from parametric bootstrapping:

######LMM example####### #now let's say that we took 5 measurements per pots and we don't want to aggregate them data<-data.frame(Pots=rep(paste0("P",1:120),each=5),Block=rep(rep(paste0("B",1:4),each=5*10),times=3),N=gl(n = 3,k = 40*5,labels=c("Few","Medium","A_lot")),C=rep(runif(120,-2,2),each=5)) #a random intercept term rnd_int<-rnorm(120,0,0.4) modmat<-model.matrix(~Block+C*N,data) lin_pred<-modmat%*%params+rnd_int[factor(data$Pots)] data$Biom<-rnorm(600,lin_pred,1) m<-lmer(Biom~Block+C*N+(1|Pots),data) summary(m) ## Linear mixed model fit by REML ['lmerMod'] ## Formula: Biom ~ Block + C * N + (1 | Pots) ## Data: data ## ## REML criterion at convergence: 1765.1 ## ## Scaled residuals: ## Min 1Q Median 3Q Max ## -2.6608 -0.6446 -0.0340 0.6077 3.2002 ## ## Random effects: ## Groups Name Variance Std.Dev. ## Pots (Intercept) 0.1486 0.3855 ## Residual 0.9639 0.9818 ## Number of obs: 600, groups: Pots, 120 ## ## Fixed effects: ## Estimate Std. Error t value ## (Intercept) 9.93917 0.13225 75.15 ## BlockB2 -0.42019 0.15153 -2.77 ## BlockB3 2.35993 0.15364 15.36 ## BlockB4 -1.36188 0.15111 -9.01 ## C 0.97208 0.07099 13.69 ## NMedium 0.36236 0.13272 2.73 ## NA_lot 2.25624 0.13189 17.11 ## C:NMedium 0.70157 0.11815 5.94 ## C:NA_lot 2.78150 0.10764 25.84 ## ## Correlation of Fixed Effects: ## (Intr) BlckB2 BlckB3 BlckB4 C NMedim NA_lot C:NMdm ## BlockB2 -0.572 ## BlockB3 -0.575 0.493 ## BlockB4 -0.576 0.495 0.493 ## C 0.140 -0.012 -0.018 -0.045 ## NMedium -0.511 0.003 0.027 0.007 -0.118 ## NA_lot -0.507 0.008 0.003 0.003 -0.119 0.502 ## C:NMedium -0.134 0.019 0.161 0.038 -0.601 0.175 0.071 ## C:NA_lot -0.107 0.077 0.020 0.006 -0.657 0.078 0.129 0.394 #again model check should come here #for LMM and GLMM we also need to pass as character (vector) the names of the random effect pred<-plot_fit(m,focal_var = "C",inter_var = "N",RE = "Pots") #let's plot this plot(Biom~C,data,col=c("red","green","blue")[data$N],pch=16,xlab="CO2 concentration",ylab="Plant biomass") lines(Pred~C,pred[1:20,],col="red",lwd=3) lines(LC~C,pred[1:20,],col="red",lwd=2,lty=2) lines(UC~C,pred[1:20,],col="red",lwd=2,lty=2) lines(Pred~C,pred[21:40,],col="green",lwd=3) lines(LC~C,pred[21:40,],col="green",lwd=2,lty=2) lines(UC~C,pred[21:40,],col="green",lwd=2,lty=2) lines(Pred~C,pred[41:60,],col="blue",lwd=3) lines(LC~C,pred[41:60,],col="blue",lwd=2,lty=2) lines(UC~C,pred[41:60,],col="blue",lwd=2,lty=2) legend("topleft",legend = c("Few","Medium","A lot"),col=c("red","green","blue"),pch=16,lwd=3,title = "N addition",bty="n")

Please note a few elements:

– so far the function only return 95% confidence intervals

– I have tested it on various types of models that I usually build but there are most certainly still some bugs hanging around so if the function return an error please let me know of the model you fitted and the error returned

– the bootstrap computation can take some time for GLMM so be ready to wait a few minute if you have a big complex model

– the function accept a vector of variable names for the inter_var argument, it should also work for the RE argument even if I did not tried it yet

Happy plotting!

Here is the code for the function:

#function to generate predicted response with confidence intervals from a (G)LM(M) #works with the following model/class: lm, glm, glm.nb, merMod #this function average over potential covariates #it also allows for the specification of one or several interacting variables #these must be factor variables in the model #for (G)LMM the name of the random terms must be specfied in the RE argument #for (G)LMM the confidence interval can be either bootstrapped or coming from #a normal approximation using #list of arguments: #@m: a model object, either of class: lm, glm, glm.nb, merMod #@focal_var: a character, the name of the focal variable that will be on the x-axis #@inter_var: a character or a character vector, the names(s) of the interacting variables, must be declared as factor variables in the model, default is NULL #@RE: a charcater or a charcater vector, the name(s) of the random effect variables in the case of a merMod object, default is NULL #@offset: a character, the name of the offset variable, note that this effect will be averaged out like other continuous covariates, this is maybe not desirable #@n: an integer, the number of generated prediction points, default is 20 #@n_core: an integer, the number of cores to use in parallel computing for the bootstrapped CI for merMod object, default is 4 #@boot_mer: a logical, whether to use bootstrapped (TRUE) or a normal approximation (FALSE, the default) for the confidence interval in the case of a merMod model plot_fit<-function(m,focal_var,inter_var=NULL,RE=NULL,offset=NULL,n=20,n_core=4,boot_mer=FALSE){ require(arm) dat<-model.frame(m) #turn all character variable to factor dat<-as.data.frame(lapply(dat,function(x){ if(is.character(x)){ as.factor(x) } else{x} })) #make a sequence from the focal variable x1<-list(seq(min(dat[,focal_var]),max(dat[,focal_var]),length=n)) #grab the names and unique values of the interacting variables isInter<-which(names(dat)%in%inter_var) if(length(isInter)==1){ x2<-list(unique(dat[,isInter])) names(x2)<-inter_var } if(length(isInter)>1){ x2<-lapply(dat[,isInter],unique) } if(length(isInter)==0){ x2<-NULL } #all_var<-x1 #add the focal variable to this list all_var<-c(x1,x2) #expand.grid on it names(all_var)[1]<-focal_var all_var<-expand.grid(all_var) #remove varying variables and non-predictors and potentially offset variables if(!is.null(offset)){ off_name <- grep("^offset",names(dat),value=TRUE)#this is needed because of the weird offset formatting in the model.frame } dat_red<-dat[,-c(1,which(names(dat)%in%c(focal_var,inter_var,RE,"X.weights.",off_name))),drop=FALSE] #if there are no variables left over that need averaging if(dim(dat_red)[2]==0){ new_dat<-all_var name_f <- NULL } else{ #otherwise add these extra variables, numeric variable will take their mean values #and factor variables will take their first level before being averaged out lines 86-87 fixed<-lapply(dat_red,function(x) if(is.numeric(x)) mean(x) else factor(levels(x)[1],levels = levels(x))) #the number of rows in the new_dat frame fixed<-lapply(fixed,rep,dim(all_var)[1]) #create the new_dat frame starting with the varying focal variable and potential interactions new_dat<-cbind(all_var,as.data.frame(fixed)) #get the name of the variable to average over name_f<-names(dat_red)[sapply(dat_red,function(x) ifelse(is.factor(x),TRUE,FALSE))] } #add an offset column set at 0 if needed if(!is.null(offset)){ new_dat[,offset] <- 0 } #get the predicted values cl<-class(m)[1] if(cl=="lm"){ pred<-predict(m,newdata = new_dat,se.fit=TRUE) } if(cl=="glm" | cl=="negbin"){ #predicted values on the link scale pred<-predict(m,newdata=new_dat,type="link",se.fit=TRUE) } if(cl=="glmerMod" | cl=="lmerMod"){ pred<-list(fit=predict(m,newdata=new_dat,type="link",re.form=~0)) #for bootstrapped CI new_dat<-cbind(new_dat,rep(0,dim(new_dat)[1])) names(new_dat)[dim(new_dat)[2]]<-as.character(formula(m)[[2]]) mm<-model.matrix(formula(m,fixed.only=TRUE),new_dat) } #average over potential categorical variables avg_over <- 0 #for cases where no averaging is to be done if(length(name_f)>0){ if(cl=="glmerMod" | cl=="lmerMod"){ coef_f<-lapply(name_f,function(x) fixef(m)[grep(paste0("^",x),names(fixef(m)))]) } else{ coef_f<-lapply(name_f,function(x) coef(m)[grep(paste0("^",x),names(coef(m)))]) } avg_over <- sum(unlist(lapply(coef_f,function(x) mean(c(0,x))))) #averging out all factor effects pred$fit<-pred$fit + avg_over } #to get the back-transform values get the inverse link function linkinv<-family(m)$linkinv #get the back transformed prediction together with the 95% CI for LM and GLM if(cl=="glm" | cl=="lm" | cl=="negbin"){ pred$pred<-linkinv(pred$fit) pred$LC<-linkinv(pred$fit-1.96*pred$se.fit) pred$UC<-linkinv(pred$fit+1.96*pred$se.fit) } #for (G)LMM need to use either bootstrapped CI or use approximate #standard error from the variance-covariance matrix #see ?predict.merMod and http://glmm.wikidot.com/faq#predconf #note that the bootstrapped option is recommended by the lme4 authors if(cl=="glmerMod" | cl=="lmerMod"){ pred$pred<-linkinv(pred$fit) if(boot_mer){ predFun<-function(.) mm%*%fixef(.)+avg_over bb<-bootMer(m,FUN=predFun,nsim=200,parallel="multicore",ncpus=n_core) #do this 200 times bb$t<-apply(bb$t,1,function(x) linkinv(x)) #as we did this 200 times the 95% CI will be bordered by the 5th and 195th value bb_se<-apply(bb$t,1,function(x) x[order(x)][c(5,195)]) pred$LC<-bb_se[1,] pred$UC<-bb_se[2,] } else{ se <- sqrt(diag(mm %*% tcrossprod(vcov(m),mm))) pred$LC <- linkinv(pred$fit - 1.96 * se) pred$UC <- linkinv(pred$fit + 1.96 * se) } } #the output out<-as.data.frame(cbind(new_dat[,1:(length(inter_var)+1)],pred$LC,pred$pred,pred$UC)) names(out)<-c(names(new_dat)[1:(length(inter_var)+1)],"LC","Pred","UC") return(out) }

Hello and thank you for providing this useful function. I used it successfully for a lm mixed-model but ran into an unusual result when I tried it with a glmm model. Specifically, the estimated confidence intervals do not include the predicted values. See below for code and details:

The Model:

MaxAbGLM <- glmer(Max_Ab ~ Season*WaterYear + edge.cat*Non.Orchard + Woodland + (1|Site),

data = hr, family="poisson")

where Max_Ab is maximum abundance, Site, Season, WaterYear, edge.cat, and Non.Orchard are factors, and Woodland is a continuous variable.

The predictions:

pred=plot_fit(MaxAbGLM, focal_var="Woodland", RE="Site", n=100)

The output:

Woodland LC Pred UC

1 -1.299382 16.48899 11.99967 54.30154

2 -1.246204 16.74357 12.18396 55.20997

3 -1.193027 16.96871 12.37109 56.10488

4 -1.139850 17.19687 12.56109 56.91551

5 -1.086672 17.42811 12.75401 57.73786

6 -1.033495 17.66245 12.94989 58.57208

Importantly, I did get a warning that the model had not converged, but I don't think that is responsible for this result. The results actually look fairly reasonable except for the fact that Pred and LC should be switched.

Any idea what is going on here?

Thanks again!

Hi! Thanks for your interest and your kind words. Since I published this post I updated the function, will update the post in a sec wit the newest version (guess I should put it on github at some point), try it out and see if you still find a mistake.

In general it is hard to correct for mistakes without the actual data, it is usually common practice to provide either reproducible code or to give a subset/shuffled version of the original dataset to try to debug specific case.

For example running these:

library(lme4)

data(“Arabidopsis”)

m<-glmer(total.fruits~nutrient*amd+(1|popu),Arabidopsis,family="poisson")

pred<-plot_fit(m = m,focal_var = "nutrient",inter_var = "amd",RE = "popu")

Gave me that:

nutrient amd LC Pred UC

1 1.000000 clipped 7.787089 10.29958 13.84370

2 1.368421 clipped 8.401204 11.10020 14.92979

3 1.736842 clipped 9.063749 11.96306 16.10108

4 2.105263 clipped 9.778544 12.89299 17.36427

5 2.473684 clipped 10.549711 13.89521 18.72655

6 2.842105 clipped 11.381694 14.97533 20.19572

My R and package version:

sessionInfo()

R version 3.3.1 (2016-06-21)

Platform: x86_64-pc-linux-gnu (64-bit)

Running under: Ubuntu 16.04.1 LTS

locale:

[1] LC_CTYPE=en_US.UTF-8 LC_NUMERIC=C LC_TIME=de_DE.UTF-8 LC_COLLATE=en_US.UTF-8 LC_MONETARY=de_DE.UTF-8 LC_MESSAGES=en_US.UTF-8

[7] LC_PAPER=de_DE.UTF-8 LC_NAME=C LC_ADDRESS=C LC_TELEPHONE=C LC_MEASUREMENT=de_DE.UTF-8 LC_IDENTIFICATION=C

attached base packages:

[1] stats graphics grDevices utils datasets methods base

other attached packages:

[1] arm_1.8-6 MASS_7.3-45 lme4_1.1-12 Matrix_1.2-6

loaded via a namespace (and not attached):

[1] Rcpp_0.12.7 lattice_0.20-33 grid_3.3.1 nlme_3.1-128 coda_0.18-1 minqa_1.2.4 nloptr_1.0.4 raster_2.5-8 sp_1.2-3 splines_3.3.1

[11] tools_3.3.1 parallel_3.3.1 abind_1.4-3 rsconnect_0.4.3 colorspace_1.2-6

I am happy to share the full code, but am not clear on how to share the data as there is not an option to attach a file. Also, I am reluctant to post the data to a public website as this is still a work in progress. Let me know the best way to get the data and code to you and I’ll pass it along. Thanks!

Hi Lionel,

many thanks for the fast reply and sorry for posting in the section “about” and not here. Yes, the problem does not occur, however: “Error in FUN(x) : object ‘avg_over’ not found”.

😉

And many thanks in advance, of course.

Best

jörg

PS: really great the separating by two factors is included, can’t wait to get it working correctly.

PSS: if you need the data to solve it just tell me

Hi Jörg, Coding on a sunday afternoon with a headache is not always advised … I just updated the code have a look, hopefully should work with your data! (Note to myself, definitively put this function in a repo)

Thank you very much for this useful code! Unfortunately I have am having some trouble running it on my data and hope you can help me out.

I have run the following glmer model:

lmdata <- glmer(AbundanceN ~ offset(lncorrection) + logIsolation + Matrix + logArea*(Protection + Guild + Specialism) + (1|Study) + (1|Biome) + (1|Method) , data=Residents, family=poisson(link = "log"))

My focal_var is "logArea" and I would like to plot this for the different levels of "Guild". However, when I run your code (starting with: plot_fit< function(lmdata,focal_var="logArea" ,inter_var="Guild",RE=NULL,n=100,n_core=4) I end up getting the following error: Error in .subset(x, j) : only 0's may be mixed with negative subscripts

Do you have an idea what might be going wrong here? If needed, I can provide you the data and code.

Regards,

Robert

Hi Roberts, Thanks for your interest, sorry for the bugs … I see two ways for this error to creep in: the offset variable and the crossed random terms. I never tried the code on such a model, so I will have a look into the function, it would make it easier if you could indeed send me the a subset of the data (say the first 50-100 rows, or shuffling the dataset), see my mail address in the “About” page.

Yours, Lionel

thanks Lionel! I have sent you an email with a subset of my data.

Hello and thank you for this excellent function and awesome blog!

I’ve used plot_fit frequently but have recently run into an issue when building models with glm.nb. I’m curious if you plan on modifying the code to accommodate the estimation of theta in glm.nb? I’m not adept enough to do this myself within your function, but have found this go-around.

library(lme4)

data(“Arabidopsis”)

#using glm.nb produces this error:

m_glm.nb<-glm.nb(total.fruits ~ nutrient*amd, data =Arabidopsis)

pred <- plot_fit(m_glm.nb, focal_var = "nutrient", inter_var ="amb", n =100)

Error in data.frame(…, check.names = FALSE) :

arguments imply differing number of rows: 100, 0

#using glm with the estimate of theta derived from the glm.nb works fine without error:

m_glm<-glm(total.fruits ~ nutrient*amd, data =Arabidopsis, family = negative.binomial(theta = 0.4635))

pred <- plot_fit(m_glm, focal_var = "nutrient", inter_var ="amb", n =100)

Of course, I can make this work by including the theta estimate as above, but curious if you have any other insight or suggestion.

Best,

Sacha

Hi Sasha,

Thanks for your kind words and glad to hear that you find the function useful. I just pushed a patch to address your issue to the github repo of this blog: https://github.com/Lionel68/Blog, will also update the original post but I’d advice to track the github for more changes and new features!

Yours,

Lionel

Works great, thanks! Sacha

Hi Lionel, are you able to provide code for plotting CIs around a plot of y against multiple continuous predictor variables, i.e. a multiple linear regression? I’m struggling to tweak your code in order to achieve this. The problem seems to be that newdat$y does not correlate with newdat$x

Here is the code:

m <-lm(DATA$Log.HR ~ DATA$LogMMR+DATA$Logmass, data=DATA)

newdat<-expand.grid(x=seq(from=min(DATA$LogMMR, na.rm=T),to=max(DATA$LogMMR, na.rm=T),

length=length(DATA$LogMMR)), z=mean(DATA$Logmass, na.rm=T))

mm<-model.matrix(~x+z,newdat)

newdat$y<-predict(m,newdat,re.form=NA)

pvar1 <- diag(mm %*% tcrossprod(vcov(m),mm))

newdat <- data.frame(

newdat

, plo = newdat$y-1.96*sqrt(pvar1)

, phi = newdat$y+1.96*sqrt(pvar1)

)

Many thanks, Lewis

Hi Lewis,

Thanks for your interest and for your question. Below is some code to directly address your question, I have some remarks after that:

####### R code ##########

dat <- data.frame(LogMMR = runif(100), Logmass = runif(100))

dat$Log.HR <- rnorm(100,

mean = 2 * dat$LogMMR – 1 * dat$Logmass,

sd = 1)

m <- lm(Log.HR ~ LogMMR + Logmass, dat)

# plotting response of Log.HR to LogMMR while controlling for Logmass

newdat <- expand.grid(LogMMR = seq(0,1,length=10),Logmass=mean(dat$Logmass))

pred <- predict(m,newdata = newdat,se.fit = TRUE)

newdat$Log.HR <- pred$fit # mean predictions

# get 95% confidence intervals

newdat$LCI <- pred$fit – 1.96 * pred$se.fit

newdat$UCI <- pred$fit + 1.96 * pred$se.fit

# plot

library(ggplot2)

ggplot(dat,aes(x=LogMMR,y=Log.HR)) +

geom_point() +

geom_line(data=newdat) +

geom_ribbon(data=newdat,aes(ymin=LCI,ymax=UCI),alpha=0.2)

#############

So with "simple" models such as lm or glm we do not need to compute by hand the standard error of the fitted values (which is what is done with this command above: "pvar1 <- diag(mm %*% tcrossprod(vcov(m),mm))"), with lm and glm the predict function give it to us directly by setting "se.fit=TRUE", then it is just a matter of combining the fitted values with the standard error to get the 95% confidence interval band.

Hope this helps,

Lionel

Brilliant – thanks Lionel. Extremely helpful.

… Albeit these plots are excellent, there is a risk that the lines of best fit don’t relate to the plotted data points, because the data points are unadjusted whereas the lines of best fit are adjusted for covariates. It could be that the lines of best fit ‘miss’ the data points plotted in the graph. Therefore, I think it can be useful to plot adjusted data points, i.e. the y-values of the data points are adjusted for the covariates. Let’s say the plot is height ~ weight + age, i.e. height as described by weight, accounting for age. The code to do the adjustment would be:

m <- lm(height ~ weight + age)

data$height_adj <- data$height – (coef(summary(m))[3]*data$age) + (coef(summary(m))[3]*mean(data$age, na.rm=T)) # subtract the 'influence' of age from the height value of each data point and then add on the estimated influence of mean age.

I.e. this would adjust each value of height for the effect of age, by taking away the particular effect that age is having on each value, and replacing it with the effect of mean age. Thus all the data points are affected by age by the same amount, i.e. age is no longer a covariate (confound).

Does that seem reasonable to you?

Hi again Lewis and sorry for the late answer …

I usually tend to center all numeric covariates in a model and then plot the effect of one covariate while holding all other at their mean value. The interpretation is then that the line of best fit that is plotted shows the effect of one covariate (weight in your example) while holding all others (age in your example) at their average value. Usually it looks like this:

newdat <- data.frame(weight = seq(min(dat$weight), max(dat$weight), 10), age = 0)

pred <- predict(m, newdata = newdat, se.fit = TRUE)

The adjustment you suggest looks pretty much like partial residual plots (ie https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Partial_residual_plot), that I tend to avoid since I read in different places that they tend to show biased relation if you have some correlations between your covariates …

Hope this helps.